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4.3 Exclusion criteria

  • chromosomal defects (e.g. trisomy 13, 18, 21)
  • major congenital malformations that:
    • compromise lung function (e.g. surfactant protein deficiencies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia)
    • result in chronic ventilation (e.g. Pierre Robin sequence)
    • increase the risk of death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (congenital cerebral malformations)
      Note: intraventricular haemorrhages, periventricular leucomalacia and cerebral infarction are not considered congenital malformations and therefore are no exclusion criteria.
  • Use of dexamethasone or  hydrocortisone for the sole purpose of improving lung function and respiratory status prior to inclusion

Although (suspected or proven) sepsis, pneumonia, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) are well-known causes of respiratory failure, these diagnoses are know to be independent risk factors for developing BPD. Therefore, these diagnoses are not considered to be exclusion criteria. The following should be taken into consideration: 

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